Pipes & Tubes Database

Last updated at 12/05/2023 © Kezar Engineering

This is the documentation page for the Shell & Head Design. You'll find here everything you need to understand how to use our application.

We highly advice you to start by reading the Limitations section, because the version 1.0.0 don't fully support ASME BPVC Section VIII Division 1.

1. Types top

This application support the following types of pressure vessel shell and head:


  • Cylindrical


  • Ellipsoidal
  • Torispherical
  • Hemispherical
  • Conical
  • Flat
  • Toriconical

2. Drawing top

The drawings for the head and shell types are generate dynamically and updated every time the USER change a dimension. After the button Run is clicked, the Results page will be shown and the drawing can no longer be changed (unless the user click in the Back button).

3. Units top

All Modules accept two types of units: International and Imperial, but we are working in a way to let the user define his own unit configuration.

The table below shows the units used in each type and can be selected through the System of Units drop down list.

Unit International Imperial
Temperature °C °F
Pressure MPa PSi
Length mm in
Density kg/cm3 lb/in3
Volume m3 ft3
Weight kg lb
Force N lbf
Area mm2 in2

4. Fields top

Below is a list of all the available fields in the Module.

4.1. Module top

<none>System of Units<none>xxxx

4.2. Process top

<none>Fluid<none>Fluid (optional). Will not affect the results
ToOperating Temperature°C, °FIf used, must be smaller than <Td>. Will not affect the results.
PoOperating PressureMPa, PSiIf used, must be smaller than <Pd>. Will not affect the results.
TdDesign Temperature°C, °FWill be used to calculate the material stresses.
PdDesign PressureMPa, PSiWill be used in all calculations.

4.3. Dimensions top

4.3.1. Conical Head top

conical-head-doc Fig. 4.3.1. - Conical Head Dimensions
To°C, °FOperating Temperature
PoMPa, PSiOperating Pressure
EunitlessJoint efficiency

4.3.2. Cylindrical Shell top

cylindrical-shell-doc Fig. 4.3.2. - Cylindrical Shell Dimensions
To°C, °FOperating Temperature
PoMPa, PSiOperating Pressure
EunitlessJoint efficiency

4.3.3. Ellipsoidal Head top

4.3.4. Flat Head top

4.3.5. Hemispherical Head top

4.3.6. Torispherical Head top

4.4. Material top

4.5. Settings top

5. Messages top

The Module will show messages in the results pages when needed.

5.1. Warnings top

5.2. Info top

6. Sharing top

User that owns the Module can share it with other User by accessing module data in the Project Management page. A complete guide can be found in its Documentation .

Currently there are two types of sharing status:

  1. Full Access this type of access let the User make changes to the Module but can't delete it.
  2. View Access User with this type of access can't make changes, can only see the results page.

7. Limitations top

The version 1.0.0 comes with some limitations which are listed below:

  • This version can't be used to calculate the following situations:
    1. Shell under External Pressure (UG-28);
    2. Stiffening Rings (UG-29);
    3. Head with Pressure on Convex Side (UG-33);
    4. Spherical Shell (UG-27(d));
    5. Negative temperatures.

8. Equations top

The equations shown in the Results page come mainly from ASME BPVC Section VIII as this Module focus in such standard code. The only equations that didn't come from the Code is the volume and weight, which we used some math and trigonometry to find out.

List of equations that we didn't find in the Code and is used in the Module:

Reference top

  • 1. Ditos Kezar Bar (2019) The Author of Best Site Ever, 2 edn., New York City: Kezar Engineering.
  • 2. Autoraula Math (2015) How Can We Know For Sure?, 1 edn., Camboja, BR: Kezar Engineering.
  • 3. Me, Myself (2011) Matematica Básica para Filhos da P*, 3 edn., Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brasil: Kezar Engineering.